Historical Background
 
  The Political and Administrative History of Anjaw as a District dates back to 1914, when British Administration created North East Frontier Tract to administer three areas, namely 1) The Central & Eastern Section 2) The Lakhimpur Frontier Tract, and 3) The Western Section.

In order to look after the tract, a Political Officer was posted in each section.

In 1919, Central and Eastern Section was renamed as Sadiya Frontier Tract while Western Section was re-organized as Balipara Frontier Tract.
 
Present Lohit District including Anjaw was a part of Sadiya Frontier Tract with its headquarter at Sadiya.
 
The Administrative Setup of North East Frontier Tract underwent another change 24 years later when Tirap Frontier Tract was carved out from Lakhimpur Frontier Tract in 1943. In 1948, Sadiya Frontier Tract was bifurcated and two districs namely Abor Hills District, comprising of Adi inhabitated areas and Mishmi Hills District, comprising of Mishmi inhabitated areas were created. Accordingly, North East Frontier Agency came into existence in the year.
 
On 13th August 1952, Tezu became the Headquarter of Mishmi Hills District while Hayuliang was upgraded to the Headquarter of Asstt. Political Officer that began functioning by 1953. Two years later, in 1954, Mishmi Hills District was remnamed as Lohit Frontier Division. Subsequently, in 1956, Dibang Valley was constituted as a separate Sub-Division with Headquarter at Roing. Nine years later, in 1965, Lohit Frontier Division was changed to Lohit District. For Administrative Convenience, Dibang Valley with Headquarter at Anini was carved out of Lohit District in 1980.
 
Finally, Anjaw District with its Headquarter at Hawai was created on 16th February 2004 under The Arunachal Pradesh Re-organization of Districts Amendment Bill (though it was deemded to have come into force on 4th December, 2003 with seven Administrative Units, namely Hayuliang, Hawai, Manchal, Goiliang, Walong, Kibithoo, Chaglogam.
 
PEOPLE & CULTURE
 
The Mishmis
 
Mishmis are animists and believe in a number of higher spiritual beings, both benevolent and malevolent in character. Jabmalu or Matai is the highest being in their spiritual hierachy. Next is Ringya or Amik, as called respectively by the Tawrahs and Kamans, which is often addressed alongside Jabmalu or Matai. Jabmalu or Matai is considered to be the Supreme Creator who controls affairs of humans while Ringya or Amik, meaning, the Sun Goddess is regarded as Goddess of truth and justice.
 
They invoke her name while seeking or attesting truth. Below this rank lies myriad spiritual being like Duyuya or Suto, Thechaya or lumbok, Kesha Kanang or Khinim Drang, Hutung or Dappa, Buru or Buruya besides many other malevolent spirits that are propitiated from time to time on different occasions.
 
  Kabeya, as called by Tawrahs, or Pharai, as known to the Kamans, is their traditional Village Council. It is basically a sort of Clan, Village or Inter-Village Council in which, besides the Gaonbura, who is a Government Representative, neutral members and affected parties participate in the proceedings of the Council. Usually all parties follow the decision of the Council. However, in cases of serious allegations or charges of wrong-doings by a person, people also resort to ordeals employing pouring of molten iron or scalding of boiling water, etc to prove truth.
 
The Tawrahs call it Pasai while the Kamans know it as Mashai. They believe that the innocent would go unscathed even under such stiff test. The decision arrived at in the course of such ordeals normally get social sanction, and are complied with by all.
 
Mishmis are also well-known for their expertise in weaving and handicrafts. Their women make beautiful jackets for both male and female, skirts of various designs and colours while men make different cane and bamboo crafts.
 
The Meyors
 
They are a small population of around four hundred, inhabiting Walong and Kibithoo circles of the district.

Traditionally, the Meyors are animists though lately they have also imbibed ideas of Mahayana Buddhism. A few Gonpas, including the first one built in 1960 at Kaho village with Government help, stand testimony to this.

There are fifteen Meyor villages in all. They are Kaho, Mosai, Danbari, Kundun, Khroti, Yakung, Bara Kundun, Kunjuk, Walong, Tinai, Dong, Tilam, Sapkung, and Pankung. The villages are spread on either side of Lohit River flowing down through the region. The people are mostly cultivators though recently a few of them taken to business activities and Govenrment jobs.
 
A Meyor Woman
 
The Meyors celebrate a number of festivals including Losar. Their major festivals are Sungkhu, Tsotangpho Wangley, Tso Tangpo. Sungkhu is observed in August - September period and is associated with harvest of new food grains. The people offer their first harvest to God Yodak. Tso Tangpo is a Spring festival performed in April every year. The Meyors are peace-loving, hard-working and co-exist with their Mishmi neighbours peacefully.  
La Sut-A fertility ritual of Meyors
 
PLACES OF TOURIST INTEREST
 
Hayuliang
 

View of Hayuliang Township
 
A Cardamom Garden
 
Situated at a distance of 100 KMs from Tezu, the Headquarter of Lohit District, Hayuliang is the Sub-Divisional Headquarter. According to Mishmi dialect, "Hayuliang" means, 'the place of my liquor'.

Ideally located at an altitude of 750 Mt. above Mean Sea Level, Hayuliang enjoys a pleasant, cool and salubrious climate. The beautiful panaromic view of the confluence of Dalai and Lohit Rivers and scenic surrounding make the place worth visiting. It has a Government Inspection Bungalow, a Higher Secondary School, a State Bank of India branch, Telephone Exchange, TV Transmitter, and a Community Health Centre.
 

Snow-capped Mountains
 
Hawai
 

Young Dancers in Traditional Costumes
  Hawai, the young District Headquarter, is located on the left of the Lohit River at about 58 KMs South-East of Hayuliang by road. "Hawai" in Kaman Mishmi dialect means "Pond". This beautiful township is situated at an altitude of 1296 Mt. above sea level.

It is connected by a Cable Suspension Bridge, named as Anjaw, over the mighty Lohit River.
 
Head Priest (Right) with Assistant
 
Its pleasant climate, scenic landscape and unique ethnic culture make it one of the best places for visits.
 
Chaglogam
 

View of Chaglogam Township
  Another remote Circle Headquarter, Chaglogam is a picturesque place located on the left of Dalai River. It is 170 KMs and 107 KMs from Tezu and Hawai respectively.

The surface communication to the place is soon likely to be connected by road under Border Road Organization.
 
Kram-A Memorial Hut for the Dead
 

A Mishmi House
  Situated at about 1258 Mt. abobe Mean Sea Level, Chaglogam is a potential place for tracking, angling, and adventure sports like rafting, mountaineering, and similar sports.

The place is a haven for the nature lovers.
 
A Mishmi Girl in Traditional Dress
 
The local Mishmis are hospitable and peace-loving and still maintain their beautiful ethnic culture.
 
Walong
 
It is situated at an altitude of about 1094 Mt. above sea level and 200 KMs from Tezu, Walong is a Circle Headquarter with a tremendous tourism potential.

The word "Walong" in Mishmi dialect means "a place with full of bamboos."

Historically prominent because of it being the scene of gallant fight by Indian Soldiers and invading Chinese forces in 1962 and endowed with spectacular landscapes, Walong is a popular tourist destination in the district.
 
View of Walong Township
 
Namti Valley, commonly called as Namti Maidan, is placed above 7 KM from Walong on the way to Kibithoo. The fiercest battle of 1962 was fought in this valley. The beautiful age-old pines standing in witness of the supreme sacrifice made by the brave Indian Soldiers defending the borders of scarifice renders Namti Maidan a special tourist spot.

To commemorate the exemplary sacrifice of our brave soldiers, a beautiful War Memorial has been built at Walong.
 
A Memorial of 1962 War at Walong
  "The sentinel hills that around
Us stand
Bear witness that we love
Our land,
Amidst shattered racks and
Flaming pines,
We fought and died on
Namti plains
On Lohit, gently by us glide
Pale stars above
Softly shine as we sleep
Here in Sun and rain"
 
The climate is cool and salubrious. A hot spring beside the Lohit at a distance of 4 KMs from Walong is another attraction for all kinds of visitors.
 
Hot Spring
 
Besides the one near Walong, there is another hot spring located at a distance of 39 KM from the confluence of the Lohit and the Dichu River. It is 64 KM towards East from Kibithoo.

The region is endowed with spectacular landscapes of picturesque plateaus and valleys and snow-clad hills.
 

View of Lohit River near Hot Spring at Walong
 
A Pine Forest
 
Dong
 

Scenic Landscape at Dong
  Located on the left of Lohit River, Dong is a small but beautiful village of Meyor Communities. Surrounded by majestic snow-capped mountains and picturesque pine forests, the village welcomes earliest sunrise in in the country.  
A Meyor House
 
Situated at a distance of seven KM from Walong, it is connected by a nice foot suspension bridge over the Lohit.
 
Kibithoo
 
Kibithoo is a small but beautiful Circle Headquarter located close to the Indo-Cina Border at an altitude of about 1305 Mt. above sea level. Nestled on the right bank of the mighty Lohit, it is 140 KM away to the North of Hayuliang.

The whispering pine forests, wild rash berries, beautiful flowers and majestic waterfalls from the surrounding hills set against tall blue hills add grandeur to it. Its climate is cool and salubrious.
 
An Overview of Tinai Valley
 
The place also witnessed some of the severest fights by Indian Soldiers against the Chinese in 1962.

Kibithoo township is endowed with recently commissioned 30 KW Micro-Hydel Electricity Project. Further work on 5 KW Micro-Hydel for Kaho village is in advanced stage of completion.
 
Stastical Information on Anjaw District
 
1 Total Population 18, 428
2 Literacy Rate 31.32%
  Male 42.81%
  Female 17.24%
3 Sex Ratio 816 females per 100 males
4 Assembly Constituency 1
  Total Voters 9, 537
  Male 4, 632
  Female 4, 905
5 Education  
  No. of Educational Institutions 41
  Primary Schools 11
  Inter-Village Schools 22
  Middle Schools 5
  Secondary Schools 1
  Higher Secondary Schools 1
  VKV 1
  District Institute of Educational Training (DIET) 1
  No. of Teachers 116
  No. of Students 2, 590
6 Hydro-Electric Projects Halai Pani, Mati Nala, Yapak Nala, Dunai Nala, Kaho
7 Main Agricultural Products Maize, Millet, Paddy, Beans
8 Main Horticulture Products Cardamom, Orange, Pears, Plum, Apple
9 Important Forest Species Hingori, Dhuna, Hollock, Bhola, Jutuli, Pine, Fak Dima, Bamboo, Cane, Orima
10 Important Fauna Deer, Musk Deer, Squirrel, Bear, Boar, Monkey, Wolf, Lac, Varieties of Snakes
11 Land Use Pattern Forest, Jhumming, Horticulture
12 Main Rivers Lohit (called Telu by local Mishmis), Lam, Tidding, Dalai, Krowti, Dichu, Lati, Klung, Dav, Telua, Ampani, Sarti